Documentation

InfluxQL reference

InfluxQL (Influx Query Language) is an SQL-like query language used to interact with InfluxDB and work with times series data.

InfluxQL feature support

InfluxQL is being rearchitected to work with the InfluxDB 3.0 storage engine. This process is ongoing and some InfluxQL features are still being implemented. For information about the current implementation status of InfluxQL features, see InfluxQL feature support.

Notation

The syntax is specified using Extended Backus-Naur Form (“EBNF”). EBNF is the same notation used in the Go programming language specification.

Production  = production_name "=" [ Expression ] "." .
Expression  = Alternative { "|" Alternative } .
Alternative = Term { Term } .
Term        = production_name | token [ "…" token ] | Group | Option | Repetition .
Group       = "(" Expression ")" .
Option      = "[" Expression "]" .
Repetition  = "{" Expression "}" .

Notation operators in order of increasing precedence:

|   alternation
()  grouping
[]  option (0 or 1 times)
{}  repetition (0 to n times)

Query representation

Characters

InfluxQL is Unicode text encoded in UTF-8.

newline             = /* the Unicode code point U+000A */ .
unicode_char        = /* an arbitrary Unicode code point except newline */ .

Letters and digits

Letters are the set of ASCII letters and the underscore (_, U+005F).

Only decimal digits are supported.

letter              = ascii_letter | "_" .
ascii_letter        = "A" … "Z" | "a" … "z" .
digit               = "0" … "9" .

Identifiers

Identifiers are tokens that refer to database names, retention policy names, measurement names, tag keys, and field keys.

The rules are as follows:

  • Double-quoted identifiers can contain any Unicode character except for a new line.
  • Double-quoted identifiers can also contain escaped " characters (that is, \")
  • Double-quoted identifiers can include InfluxQL keywords.
  • Unquoted identifiers must start with an upper or lowercase ASCII character or “_”.
  • Unquoted identifiers may contain only ASCII letters, decimal digits, and “_”.
identifier          = unquoted_identifier | quoted_identifier .
unquoted_identifier = ( letter ) { letter | digit } .
quoted_identifier   = `"` unicode_char { unicode_char } `"` .

Examples

cpu
_cpu_stats
"1h"
"anything really"
"1_Crazy-1337.identifier>NAMEπŸ‘"

Keywords

ALL           ALTER         ANY           AS            ASC           BEGIN
BY            CREATE        CONTINUOUS    DATABASE      DATABASES     DEFAULT
DELETE        DESC          DESTINATIONS  DIAGNOSTICS   DISTINCT      DROP
DURATION      END           EVERY         EXPLAIN       FIELD         FOR
FROM          GRANT         GRANTS        GROUP         GROUPS        IN
INF           INSERT        INTO          KEY           KEYS          KILL
LIMIT         SHOW          MEASUREMENT   MEASUREMENTS  NAME          OFFSET
ON            ORDER         PASSWORD      POLICY        POLICIES      PRIVILEGES
QUERIES       QUERY         READ          REPLICATION   RESAMPLE      RETENTION
REVOKE        SELECT        SERIES        SET           SHARD         SHARDS
SLIMIT        SOFFSET       STATS         SUBSCRIPTION  SUBSCRIPTIONS TAG
TO            USER          USERS         VALUES        WHERE         WITH
WRITE

If you use an InfluxQL keyword as an identifier, double-quote the identifier in every query.

The time keyword is a special case. time can be a database name, measurement name, retention policy name, and user name.

In those cases, you don’t need to double-quote time in queries.

time can’t be a field key or tag key; InfluxDB rejects writes with time as a field key or tag key and returns an error.

Literals

Integers

InfluxQL supports decimal integer literals. Hexadecimal and octal literals aren’t currently supported.

int_lit             = ( "1" … "9" ) { digit } .

Floats

InfluxQL supports floating-point literals. Exponents aren’t currently supported.

float_lit           = int_lit "." int_lit .

Strings

String literals must be surrounded by single quotes. Strings may contain ' characters as long as they are escaped (that is, , \')

string_lit          = `'` { unicode_char } `'` .

Durations

Duration literals specify a length of time. An integer literal followed immediately (with no spaces) by one of the duration units listed below is interpreted as a duration literal. Durations can be specified with mixed units.

Duration units
Units Meaning
ns nanoseconds (1 billionth of a second)
u or Β΅ microseconds (1 millionth of a second)
ms milliseconds (1 thousandth of a second)
s second
m minute
h hour
d day
w week
duration_lit        = int_lit duration_unit .
duration_unit       = "ns" | "u" | "Β΅" | "ms" | "s" | "m" | "h" | "d" | "w" .

Dates & Times

Unlike other notations used in InfluxQL, the date and time literal format isn’t specified by EBNF. InfluxQL date and time is specified using Go’s time parsing format and reference date written in the format required by InfluxQL. The reference date time is:

InfluxQL reference date time: January 2nd, 2006 at 3:04:05 PM

time_lit            = "2006-01-02 15:04:05.999999" | "2006-01-02" .

Booleans

bool_lit            = TRUE | FALSE .

Regular Expressions

regex_lit           = "/" { unicode_char } "/" .

Comparators: =~ matches against !~ doesn’t match against

InfluxQL supports using regular expressions when specifying:

Currently, InfluxQL doesn’t support using regular expressions to match non-string field values in the WHERE clause, databases, and retention polices.

Queries

A query is composed of one or more statements separated by a semicolon (;).

query               = statement { ";" statement } .

statement           = explain_stmt |
                      explain_analyze_stmt |
                      select_stmt |
                      show_field_keys_stmt |
                      show_measurements_stmt |
                      show_tag_keys_stmt |
                      show_tag_values_with_key = stmt .

Statements

EXPLAIN

Parses and plans the query, and then prints a summary of estimated costs.

Many SQL engines use the EXPLAIN statement to show join order, join algorithms, and predicate and expression pushdown. Since InfluxQL doesn’t support joins, the cost of an InfluxQL query is typically a function of the total series accessed, the number of iterator accesses to a TSM file, and the number of TSM blocks that need to be scanned.

A query plan generated by EXPLAIN contains the following elements:

  • expression
  • auxiliary fields
  • number of shards
  • number of series
  • cached values
  • number of files
  • number of blocks
  • size of blocks
explain_stmt = "EXPLAIN" select_stmt .

Example

> explain select sum(pointReq) from "_internal"."monitor"."write" group by hostname;
> QUERY PLAN
------
EXPRESSION: sum(pointReq::integer)
NUMBER OF SHARDS: 2
NUMBER OF SERIES: 2
CACHED VALUES: 110
NUMBER OF FILES: 1
NUMBER OF BLOCKS: 1
SIZE OF BLOCKS: 931

EXPLAIN ANALYZE

Executes the specified SELECT statement and returns data about the query performance and storage during runtime, visualized as a tree. Use this statement to analyze query performance and storage, including execution time and planning time, and the iterator type and cursor type.

For example, if you execute the following statement:

> explain analyze select mean(usage_steal) from cpu where time >= '2018-02-22T00:00:00Z' and time < '2018-02-22T12:00:00Z'

The output is similar to the following:

EXPLAIN ANALYZE
---------------
.
└── select
    β”œβ”€β”€ execution_time: 2.25823ms
    β”œβ”€β”€ planning_time: 18.381616ms
    β”œβ”€β”€ total_time: 20.639846ms
    └── field_iterators
        β”œβ”€β”€ labels
        β”‚   └── statement: SELECT mean(usage_steal::float) FROM telegraf."default".cpu
        └── expression
            β”œβ”€β”€ labels
            β”‚   └── expr: mean(usage_steal::float)
            └── create_iterator
                β”œβ”€β”€ labels
                β”‚   β”œβ”€β”€ measurement: cpu
                β”‚   └── shard_id: 608
                β”œβ”€β”€ cursors_ref: 779
                β”œβ”€β”€ cursors_aux: 0
                β”œβ”€β”€ cursors_cond: 0
                β”œβ”€β”€ float_blocks_decoded: 431
                β”œβ”€β”€ float_blocks_size_bytes: 1003552
                β”œβ”€β”€ integer_blocks_decoded: 0
                β”œβ”€β”€ integer_blocks_size_bytes: 0
                β”œβ”€β”€ unsigned_blocks_decoded: 0
                β”œβ”€β”€ unsigned_blocks_size_bytes: 0
                β”œβ”€β”€ string_blocks_decoded: 0
                β”œβ”€β”€ string_blocks_size_bytes: 0
                β”œβ”€β”€ boolean_blocks_decoded: 0
                β”œβ”€β”€ boolean_blocks_size_bytes: 0
                └── planning_time: 14.805277ms```

EXPLAIN ANALYZE ignores query output, so the cost of serialization to JSON or CSV isn’t accounted for.

execution_time

Shows the amount of time the query took to execute, including reading the time series data, performing operations as data flows through iterators, and draining processed data from iterators. Execution time doesn’t include the time taken to serialize the output into JSON or other formats.

planning_time

Shows the amount of time the query took to plan. Planning a query in InfluxDB requires a number of steps. Depending on the complexity of the query, planning can require more work and consume more CPU and memory resources than executing the query. For example, the number of series keys required to execute a query affects how quickly the query is planned and how much memory the planning requires.

First, InfluxDB determines the effective time range of the query and selects the shards to access. Next, for each shard and each measurement, InfluxDB performs the following steps:

  1. Select matching series keys from the index, filtered by tag predicates in the WHERE clause.
  2. Group filtered series keys into tag sets based on the GROUP BY dimensions.
  3. Enumerate each tag set and create a cursor and iterator for each series key.
  4. Merge iterators and return the merged result to the query executor.
iterator type

EXPLAIN ANALYZE supports the following iterator types:

  • create_iterator node represents work done by the local influxd instance──a complex composition of nested iterators combined and merged to produce the final query output.
  • (InfluxDB Enterprise only) remote_iterator node represents work done on remote machines.

For more information about iterators, see Understanding iterators.

cursor type

EXPLAIN ANALYZE distinguishes 3 cursor types. While the cursor types have the same data structures and equal CPU and I/O costs, each cursor type is constructed for a different reason and separated in the final output. Consider the following cursor types when tuning a statement:

  • cursor_ref: Reference cursor created for SELECT projections that include a function, such as last() or mean().
  • cursor_aux: Auxiliary cursor created for simple expression projections (not selectors or an aggregation). For example, SELECT foo FROM m or SELECT foo+bar FROM m, where foo and bar are fields.
  • cursor_cond: Condition cursor created for fields referenced in a WHERE clause.

For more information about cursors, see Understanding cursors.

block types

EXPLAIN ANALYZE separates storage block types, and reports the total number of blocks decoded and their size (in bytes) on disk. The following block types are supported:

Type Description
float 64-bit IEEE-754 floating-point number
integer 64-bit signed integer
unsigned 64-bit unsigned integer
boolean 1-bit, LSB encoded
string UTF-8 string

SELECT

select_stmt = "SELECT" fields from_clause [ where_clause ]
              [ group_by_clause ] [ order_by_clause ] [ limit_clause ]
              [ offset_clause ] [ slimit_clause ] [ soffset_clause ] [ timezone_clause ] .

Example

Select from measurements grouped by the day with a timezone

SELECT mean("value") FROM "cpu" GROUP BY region, time(1d) fill(0) tz('America/Chicago')

SHOW FIELD KEYS

show_field_keys_stmt = "SHOW FIELD KEYS" [on_clause] [ from_clause ] .

Examples

-- show field keys and field value data types from all measurements
SHOW FIELD KEYS

-- show field keys and field value data types from specified measurement
SHOW FIELD KEYS FROM "cpu"

SHOW MEASUREMENTS

show_measurements_stmt = "SHOW MEASUREMENTS" [on_clause] [ with_measurement_clause ] [ where_clause ] [ limit_clause ] [ offset_clause ] .

Examples

-- show all measurements
SHOW MEASUREMENTS

-- show measurements where region tag = 'uswest' AND host tag = 'serverA'
SHOW MEASUREMENTS WHERE "region" = 'uswest' AND "host" = 'serverA'

-- show measurements that start with 'h2o'
SHOW MEASUREMENTS WITH MEASUREMENT =~ /h2o.*/

SHOW TAG KEYS

show_tag_keys_stmt = "SHOW TAG KEYS" [on_clause] [ from_clause ] [ where_clause ]
                     [ limit_clause ] [ offset_clause ] .

Examples

-- show all tag keys
SHOW TAG KEYS

-- show all tag keys from the cpu measurement
SHOW TAG KEYS FROM "cpu"

-- show all tag keys from the cpu measurement where the region key = 'uswest'
SHOW TAG KEYS FROM "cpu" WHERE "region" = 'uswest'

-- show all tag keys where the host key = 'serverA'
SHOW TAG KEYS WHERE "host" = 'serverA'

SHOW TAG VALUES

show_tag_values_stmt = "SHOW TAG VALUES" [on_clause] [ from_clause ] with_tag_clause [ where_clause ]
                       [ limit_clause ] [ offset_clause ] .

Examples

-- show all tag values across all measurements for the region tag
SHOW TAG VALUES WITH KEY = "region"

-- show tag values from the cpu measurement for the region tag
SHOW TAG VALUES FROM "cpu" WITH KEY = "region"

-- show tag values across all measurements for all tag keys that do not include the letter c
SHOW TAG VALUES WITH KEY !~ /.*c.*/

-- show tag values from the cpu measurement for region & host tag keys where service = 'redis'
SHOW TAG VALUES FROM "cpu" WITH KEY IN ("region", "host") WHERE "service" = 'redis'

Clauses

from_clause     = "FROM" measurements .

group_by_clause = "GROUP BY" dimensions fill(fill_option).

limit_clause    = "LIMIT" int_lit .

offset_clause   = "OFFSET" int_lit .

slimit_clause   = "SLIMIT" int_lit .

soffset_clause  = "SOFFSET" int_lit .

timezone_clause = tz(string_lit) .

on_clause       = "ON" db_name .

order_by_clause = "ORDER BY" sort_fields .

where_clause    = "WHERE" expr .

with_measurement_clause = "WITH MEASUREMENT" ( "=" measurement | "=~" regex_lit ) .

with_tag_clause = "WITH KEY" ( "=" tag_key | "!=" tag_key | "=~" regex_lit | "IN (" tag_keys ")"  ) .

Expressions

binary_op        = "+" | "-" | "*" | "/" | "%" | "&" | "|" | "^" | "AND" |
                   "OR" | "=" | "!=" | "<>" | "<" | "<=" | ">" | ">=" .

expr             = unary_expr { binary_op unary_expr } .

unary_expr       = "(" expr ")" | var_ref | time_lit | string_lit | int_lit |
                   float_lit | bool_lit | duration_lit | regex_lit .

Default time range

The default time range is the Unix epoch (1970-01-01T00:00:00Z) to now.

Comments

Use comments with InfluxQL statements to describe your queries.

  • A single line comment begins with two hyphens (--) and ends where InfluxDB detects a line break. This comment type cannot span several lines.
  • A multi-line comment begins with /* and ends with */. This comment type can span several lines. Multi-line comments do not support nested multi-line comments.

Other

alias            = "AS" identifier .

back_ref         = ( policy_name ".:MEASUREMENT" ) |
                   ( db_name "." [ policy_name ] ".:MEASUREMENT" ) .

db_name          = identifier .

dimension        = expr .

dimensions       = dimension { "," dimension } .

field_key        = identifier .

field            = expr [ alias ] .

fields           = field { "," field } .

fill_option      = "null" | "none" | "previous" | int_lit | float_lit | "linear" .

host             = string_lit .

measurement      = measurement_name |
                   ( policy_name "." measurement_name ) |
                   ( db_name "." [ policy_name ] "." measurement_name ) .

measurements     = measurement { "," measurement } .

measurement_name = identifier | regex_lit .

policy_name      = identifier .

retention_policy = identifier .

retention_policy_name = "NAME" identifier .

series_id        = int_lit .

sort_field       = field_key [ ASC | DESC ] .

sort_fields      = sort_field { "," sort_field } .

tag_key          = identifier .

tag_keys         = tag_key { "," tag_key } .

var_ref          = measurement .

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Flux is going into maintenance mode and will not be supported in InfluxDB 3.0. This was a decision based on the broad demand for SQL and the continued growth and adoption of InfluxQL. We are continuing to support Flux for users in 1.x and 2.x so you can continue using it with no changes to your code. If you are interested in transitioning to InfluxDB 3.0 and want to future-proof your code, we suggest using InfluxQL.

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