Time and time zones

InfluxQL is designed for working with time series data and includes features specifically for working with time. You can review the following ways to work with time and timestamps in your InfluxQL queries:

Time syntax

InfluxQL supports the following timestamp literal syntaxes:

'2006-01-02T15:04:05.00Z' -- RFC3339 date-time string
'2006-01-02 15:04:05.00'  -- RFC3339-like date-time string
1136189045000000000       -- Unix nanosecond epoch time
1136189045s               -- Unix epoch time
Supported timestamp values
RFC3339 Unix nanosecond time
Maximum 2262-04-11T23:47:16.854775807Z 9223372036854775807
Minimum 1677-09-21T00:12:43.145224193Z -9223372036854775807

Add and subtract time values

Timestamp values support addition and subtraction operations with duration literals. Add (+) or subtract (-) a duration to or from a timestamp to return an updated timestamp.

'2023-01-01T00:00:00Z' + 2h -- Resolves to 2023-01-01T02:00:00Z
'2023-01-01 00:00:00' - 20h -- Resolves to 2022-12-31T04:00:00Z
1672531200000000000 + 1y    -- Resolves to 2024-01-01T00:00:00Z

InfluxQL requires a whitespace between the + operators - and the duration literal.

Query time range

To specify the time range of a query, use conditional expressions in the WHERE clause that compare the value of the time column to an absolute timestamp or a relative timestamp.

  • Absolute time range: Define query time bounds with timestamp literals

    WHERE time >= '2023-01-01T00:00:00Z' AND time <= '2023-07-01T00:00:00Z'
    WHERE time >= '2023-01-01 00:00:00' AND time <= '2023-07-01 00:00:00'
    WHERE time >= 1672531200000000000 AND time <= 1688169600000000000
    WHERE time >= 1672531200s and time <= 1688169600000ms
  • Relative time range: Define query time bounds with a duration literal added to or subtracted from timestamp literals.

    Use now() to return the current system time (UTC).

    -- Query data from the last day
    WHERE time >= now() - 1d
    -- Query data from the previous week
    WHERE time >= now() - 1w AND time <= now() - 2w
    -- Query data relative to a specific time
    WHERE time >= '2023-01-01' - 1w AND time <= '2023-01-01' + 1w

Supported operators

Conditional expressions with time operands support the following comparison operators:

Operator Meaning
= equal to
<> not equal to
!= not equal to
> greater than
>= greater than or equal to
< less than
<= less than or equal to

Currently, InfluxQL supports the AND logical operator to define query time bounds, but does not support using the OR logical operator to query multiple time ranges.

Query examples

The following examples use the Get started home sensor sample dataset.

Specify a time range with RFC3339 date-time strings

Specify a time range with RFC3339-like date-time strings

Specify a time range with nanosecond epoch timestamps

Specify a time range with second-precision epoch timestamps

Specify a time range relative to a timestamp

Specify a time range relative to now

Time zone clause

InfluxQL in InfluxDB Cloud Serverless does not currently support the time zone clause, which applies a time zone offset to UTC timestamps in query results.

Notable behaviors

Cannot query multiple time ranges

InfluxDB does not support using OR in the WHERE clause to query multiple time ranges. For example, the following query returns no results:

FROM home
  (time >= '2022-01-01T08:00:00Z' AND time <= '2022-01-01T10:00:00Z')
  OR (time >= '2022-01-01T18:00:00Z' AND time <= '2022-01-01T20:00:00Z')

Querying future data with a GROUP BY time() clause

Queries that do not specify time bounds in the WHERE clause and do not include a GROUP BY time() clause use the minimum and maximum timestamps as the default time range. If the query includes a GROUP BY time() clause, the default time range is between 1677-09-21T00:12:43.145224193Z and now().

To query data with timestamps that occur in the future (after now()), provide an explicit upper bound in the WHERE clause.

Cannot use parameters for durations

Currently, InfluxDB doesn’t support using parameters for durations in parameterized queries.

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The future of Flux

Flux is going into maintenance mode. You can continue using it as you currently are without any changes to your code.

Flux is going into maintenance mode and will not be supported in InfluxDB 3.0. This was a decision based on the broad demand for SQL and the continued growth and adoption of InfluxQL. We are continuing to support Flux for users in 1.x and 2.x so you can continue using it with no changes to your code. If you are interested in transitioning to InfluxDB 3.0 and want to future-proof your code, we suggest using InfluxQL.

For information about the future of Flux, see the following:

InfluxDB Cloud Serverless